First Pledge of Aqabah
During the Haj of the following
year twelve men from the Ansaar of Madinah met the Prophet Sallallahu
Alaihi Wasallam at a place called Aqabah. They pledged themselves
to follow him and abide to the teachings of Islam. The Prophet
Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam sent Mus'ab Ibn Umayr Radhi Allahu
Anhu with them to Madinah to teach the Qur'an to them and guide
them in their other religious affairs.
Islam now began to spread amongst
the tribes of Madinah. It was a critical juncture when the Aus
and Khazraj, two of the influential tribes of Madinah, accepted
Islam. The Aus and the Khazraj were kind-hearted and soft tempered.
They were immune from the Quraishi traits of obstinacy and vulgarity.
They were responsive and open to reason.
Another reason for their acceptance
of his message was that continuous internal warfare had already
exhausted both the tribes. They were desirous of peace and harmony
and wanted to avoid conflict. Such was their anxiety for peace
that the first Muslims of Madinah said to the Prophet Sallallahu
Alaihi Wasallam: "When we left our people discord, conflict
and enmity divided them more than any other. Perhaps Allah will
unite them through you...and if Allah unites them on you then
no man will be more honoured than you."
There was yet another reason for
their conversion. Although the Aus and Khazraj as well as the
other Arab tribes of Madinah were heathens like the idolatrous
Quraish they had become accustomed to the concept of revelation
and prophecy from their Jewish neighbours. The Jews of Madinah
lived and traded side by side with them and they were often
heard talking about a prophet who was to come in later times.
The Second Pledge of Aqaba
In the Haj of the next year the
Ansaar again met with the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam.
This time their number was seventy-three. The Prophet Sallallahu
Alaihi Wasallam read some of the verses of the Quran to them
and invited them to accept Islam. He said to them, "I invite
your allegiance on this condition that you would protect me
in the same way as you would your women and children."
They promised to sacrifice their lives and possessions in protecting
They pledged allegiance to the
Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam that they would keep away
from polytheism, theft, idolatry, infanticide, etc. They asked
whether he would ever leave them and return to his own people
if Allah gave him power and victory. The Prophet Sallallahu
Alaihi Wasallam said in reply : "I am of you and you are
of me. I will fight against those who declare war upon you and
make peace with those who make peace with you." Thereafter,
the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam selected twelve of them
as leaders. (3)
When the Quraish got news of this
secret pact they confronted the Madinite polytheists. They knew
the deep ramifications of such an agreement. Having no knowledge
of it the polytheists denied that anything of this sort had
happened in their midst. The Madinite Muslims kept silent. The
Quraiah could do nothing but leave, frustrated. (4)