The Farewell pilgrimage
The mission of the Prophet
Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam was nearing completion. He was
soon to bid farewell to his loving Sahabah. Allah finally
permitted him to take them on pilgrimage and to witness
the fruits of his twenty years of effort.
When the Prophet Sallallahu
Alaihi Wasallam decided to go for the pilgrimage he made
a public announcement and people started making preparations
for the journey. Large numbers of Muslims came to Madinah
as the news spread and more people joined the Prophet Sallallahu
Alaihi Wasallam on the way.
Before performing the afternoon
prayer the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam took a bath
and Aishah Radhi Allahu Anha applied perfume on his body.
The thick layer of perfume could be seen on parts of his
hair and beard. He dressed in the Ihraam and performed a
shortened afternoon prayer of two Rakaats. He then mounted
his she-camel, Al-Qaswa, and began to move off. He set out
from Madinah on 25th Zul Qa'dah after Zuhr. He recited the
Talbiyah along the way with his Sahabah doing likewise in
spiritual excitement. He rode with Abu Bakr Radhi Allahu
Anhu on the same conveyance.
He proceeded till he approached
Makkah. He spent the night at Dhi Tuwa and entered Makkah
after performing the dawn prayer. He had a bath on Sunday
morning, the fourth of Dhul-Hijjah. He had spent eight days
on the way, which was normal at that time. As soon as he
entered Masjid al-Haraam he performed the circuits around
the Ka'bah and walked between As-Safa and Al-Marwah. He
then took the sacrificial animals in order to slaughter
Those of his companions, who
had no animals with them to sacrifice were ordered to remove
themselves from Ihram after completing the ritual walk between
Al-Safa and Al-Marwa. They, however, showed reluctance to
do what they had been told. The Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi
Wasallam then said to them : "Had I known beforehand
what I know now, I would not have brought the sacrificial
animals and I would then have removed the Ihram." On hearing
these words his companions obeyed his orders.
On the 8th he left for Mina
where he performed the five congregational prayers till
the next morning. When the sun rose he proceeded to Arafah
and remained in the tent pitched at Namira. Later that day
he went out and delivered a sermon to the people in which
he explained the fundamentals of Islam :
"Your blood and your property
are inviolable like the sacredness of this day in this month
in this city of yours. Everything pertaining to the days
of paganism is wrong and claims of blood vengeance belonging
to the pre-Islamic period have been abolished. The first
claim on blood I remit is that of Ibn Rabi'a Ibn al-Harith
who was suckled among the Banu S'ad and killed by Hudhayl.
The usury of the days of ignorance is abolished and the
first of our usury I abolish is that of my own uncle, Abbas
Ibn Abdul Muttalib.
Fear Allah concerning women.
You have taken them under Allah's security and have made
them lawful unto you by Allah's word. It is incumbent upon
them that they must not bring into your houses anyone whom
you dislike. But, if they do that then you have the authority
to chastise them but not severely. You are responsible for
providing them with their food and clothing in a kind manner.
I have left among you something,
by which, if you hold to it, you will never go astray. What
is that? It is the book of Allah. And you would be asked
by Allah about me so what would you say?"
The Sahabah replied in a single
voice : "We testify that you have conveyed the message
and fulfilled your mission."
The Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi
Wasallam then raised his forefinger towards the sky and
said thrice : "O Allah, be witness." (1)
He performed the two congregational
prayers, Zuhr and Asr. After sunset he proceeded to Muzdalifah
and performed Maghrib and Esha together. Then he lay down
till it was Fajr. After Fajr he made his way to Mina. As
they passed the valley of Muhassar the Prophet Sallallahu
Alaihi Wasallam hastened his pace, as it was the place where
Allah's punishment had descended on the army of Abraha.
At Mina he pelted the big Jamarah with seven pebbles saying
'Allah is the Greatest' each time.
Then he set off to sacrifice
his animals. He sacrificed sixty-three camels with his own
hands, and asked Ali Radhi Allahu Anhu to slaughter the
remainder. He then had his hair shaved and distributed his
hair to the people. He mounted his she-camel and returned
to Makkah where he again performed the circuits around the
Ka'bah and drank from the Zam Zam well. He performed the
ritual walk between Al-Safa and Al-Marwa and returned to
Mina the very same day. For the next three days he pelted
the Jamarahs at Mina. He then returned to Makkah and made
a final circuit of the Ka'bah. After completing the rituals
of the pilgrimage he moved back to Madinah quickly to resume
his missionary work. (2)