The Biography of

Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam

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Lesson 23

The Missed Pilgrimage

In the year 7 A.H. the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam and his followers left for Makkah to perform the Umrah missed by them earlier. The Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam stayed for three days in the holy city of Makkah. Referring to the joyous event, the Quran says:

"Allah has fulfilled the true vision for His Messenger. You shall indeed enter Al-Masjid Al-Haraam, if Allah wills, secure, having your heads shaved and cut short, having no fear. He knew that which you knew not, and has given you besides that a near victory." (Surah Al-Fath, verse 27)



Lessons to learn

While performing the Umrah the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam ran in the first three rounds around the Ka'bah to show the Quraish that they were healthy and strong. A strong Muslim is more beloved to Allah than a weak Muslim.



Rights of Women restored

When the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam left Makkah after performing the Umra, the little daughter of Hamza Radhi Allahu Anhu, Umama, followed him calling: 'Uncle, Uncle!' Ali Radhi Allahu Anhu took her and bade Fatima to look after her. Now, Zayd and Ja'far Radhi Allahu Anhuma also claimed the guardianship of the child. Ali Radhi Allahu Anhu laid the claim for her since she was the daughter of his uncle. Ja'far Radhi Allahu Anhu said that she was the daughter of his uncle and her maternal aunt was his wife. Zayd Radhi Allahu Anhu, too, wanted to have the child as the Muslims were brothers and he could very well look after the daughter of a deceased brother. The matter was brought to the notice of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam who decided that the girl should be given to J'afar Radhi Allahu Anhu since the maternal aunt was in the position of the mother. (1)



Lessons to learn

  • Islam had changed the hearts and elevated the minds of the Arabs. The custom which prevailed in the pre-Islamic days of burying female infants alive, so as to save the honour of the family, was not only given up but, the daughters came to be so dearly loved that the people vied with one another to lavish their affection on them.



The Expedition to Muta

The Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam had sent Harith Ibn Umayr al-Azdi Radhi Allahu Anhu to deliver his letter to Rome. Harith was first tied up and then beheaded. No matter how disagreeable the message of an ambassador was, it had never been the custom of kings to kill an envoy. The crime was disgraceful and could not be allowed to go unpunished. The act had to be avenged with firmness so that no tyrant dared repeat the crime in future.

First Expedition into Byzantine Territory

The Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam decided to send a detachment to Busra in Jumada-al-Ula, 8 A.H. A force of three thousand strong was assembled. It was the strongest force sent out so far and a number of leading Sahabah had enlisted for active service. But, the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam gave its command to his freed slave Zaid Ibn Haritha Radhi Allahu Anhu. He also instructed that if Zaid was killed then Ja'far Ibn Abi Talib Radhi Allahu Anhu would take the command and if he was also slain then the command would pass on to Abdullah Ibn Rawaha Radhi Allahu Anhu. The army had to undertake a long and arduous journey to face an enemy backed by the strongest empire of the then known world.

The force advanced to Ma'an in Syria where Zaid Radhi Allahu Anhu came to know that Heraclius was gathering at Balqa with a hundred thousand Roman troops joined by an equally strong force drawn from other Arab tribes. The Muslims thought the situation over. They decided at last to inform the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam about the strength of the enemy. If he sent reinforcements well and good, otherwise they would face the enemy as they were, if so ordered.

Dauntless Warriors

Abdullah Ibn Rawaha Radhi Allahu Anhu made a passionate speech encouraging his comrades:

"Men, you dislike the thing, by Allah, for which you came out - martyrdom! We do not fight the enemy on the strength of our numbers or our power. We fight them with the religion we have been honoured with by Allah. So come on, we shall be gainers both ways. Either we win or we earn martyrdom."

Action begins

Zaid Ibn Haritha Radhi Allahu Anhu descended on the enemy and died fighting bravely. The standard was now taken in hand by Ja'far Radhi Allahu Anhu. He lost his right hand in the fighting. He took the standard in his left hand and when it was also cut off, he caught hold of it with his teeth. He fell down dead in the battlefield after receiving ninety cuts from swords and spears on his chest, but none in his back. Abdullah Ibn Rawaha Radhi Allahu Anhu now took command of the troops. He too fought bravely until he was also killed.

Khalid Radhi Allahu Anhu takes command

Khalid Ibn Walid Radhi Allahu Anhu then took command. The day was done by this time and both forces, tired by the daylong fight, thought it prudent to stop fighting. Khalid Radhi Allahu Anhu stationed a part of his force at a distance from his camp in the darkness of night. At dawn this detachment of troops started shouting cries of war which gave an impression to the enemy that fresh reinforcements had arrived from Madinah. The enemy had had the experience of fighting the small force of 3,000 Muslims the previous day. Now they dared not fight them again strengthened by additional troops. The Roman soldiery was disheartened and did not take the field. Muslims were, thus, spared the trouble of putting up a fight again.

A Glimpse of the Battlefield

While the Muslims were engaged in fighting the enemy at Muta, the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam was giving a description of the conflict in Madinah. Anas Ibn Malik Radhi Allahu Anhu relates that the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam announced the death of Zaid, Ja'far and Abdullah Ibn Rawaha Radhi Allahu Anhum before the report about them reached Madinah. The Prophet's Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam eyes were flowing with tears as he spoke. He explained: "Finally one of Allah's swords (meaning Khalid Ibn Walid Radhi Allahu Anhu) took the standard till Allah granted them victory." (2)



Lessons to learn

  • Abdullah Ibn Rawaha Radhi Allahu Anhu had knocked the nail on the head when he said that the Muslims do not win battles due to their numbers and physical strength. Their piety is the telling factor. If they are righteous they are more likely to gain victory over the enemy as compared to when they are sinful.
  • The fact that Zaid was made the leader of the army showed how Islam respected slaves. In Islam leadership is purely a matter of piety and devotion to the cause.

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(1) Nadwi, Syed Ab al-Hasan Ali, Muhammad Rasulullah, Lucknow, 1982, p. 306

(2) Nadwi, Syed Ab al-Hasan Ali, Muhammad Rasulullah, Lucknow, 1982, p. 310



Dua for protection from evil

Meaning : I seek protection with the perfect words of Allah from

every Shaitaan, harmful creature and every evil eye.




The dua alongside is for protection from dangerous animals, insects and people.